The Roof name a part of a building which provides its protection against an atmospheric precipitation from above. The roof of any house consists of an external covering (roof) and inclined supporting beams - rafters, on rafters put obreshetku and a flooring.
- Odnoskatnuju apply a roof in uninhabited premises more often.
- (shchiptsovaja) the roof has Dvuskatnaja two inclined planes forming above the fad. A triangular wall under a roof name shchiptsom, or a pediment.
- Chetyrehskatnaja (tent) roof has an inclination on four parties. From house end faces the triangular parties of a roof form valmy. Being crossed, slopes form inclined lines - edges. When at crossing hollow corners are formed, they name time
Fillets, or endovami.
- the Mansard roof increases volume of garret space for the equipment in it of habitation or various economic premises. For a drain rain and thawed snow the roof surface should have a bias. Depending on a bias distinguish
skatnye and flat roofs.
a Fig. 33. Forms skatnyh roofs :
And - odnoskatnaja; - dvuskatnaja; in - vaulted; g - chetyrehskatnaja (valmovaja); d - trehskatnaja; e - tent; - mansard; z - polushchiptsovaja; and - poluvalmovaja; to - pyramidal; l - dome
If a bias of a roof more 1 / 20 (5%) a roof consider skatnoj. Skatnye roofs (fig. 33) under the form in the plan subdivide into one-dvuskatnye (shchiptsovye), forming on face walls a pediment, or shchipets, and chetyrehskatnye (valmovye) with slopes to longitudinal and face walls. Slopes to face walls name valmami. Except these most widespread roofs meet: trehskatnye, poluvalmovye, tent, mansard, mnogoshchiptsovye, pyramidal, dome, conic, vaulted and mnogoskatnye roofs. Biases skatnyh roofs are recommended to be accepted identical, therefore crossing of slopes in the plan occurs on bisectors of corners. Lines of crossing of slopes form edges, endovy (razzhelobki) and the fads of roofs. The fad name a horizontal edge of a roof, and sinking down, being most a roof weak spot, - endovoj.
The Bias of slopes depends basically on a kind of a material of a roof and can be expressed a tangent of angle of an inclination of a slope to horizon, the relation of lifting of a slope to its horizontal projection in a kind idle times or decimal fraction or in percentage.
Bearing designs skatnyh roofs can be from a tree, a steel and ferro-concrete in the form of rafters, farms and plates. /
In buildings of small width, and also having internal support, arrange naslonnye the rafters which basic element are stropilnye the feet working on a bend as a beam with an inclined axis. The constructive scheme naslonnyh rafters (fig. 34) depends on width of a building and an arrangement of internal support.
Stropilnye of a beam (foot) stack on podstropilnye bars (mauerlaty) and runs. proaptiseptirovannye mauerlaty stack on stone walls with a lining under them a roofing felt layer at height not less than 40 sm from top of garret overlapping. Runs through 3-5 m opirajut on the racks cut by the bottom end in lezhni which stack on internal support. Stropilnye feet can be from boards, bars, logs in this connection (and also depending on roof type) distance in axes of rafters (step) fluctuates from 1 to 2 m. of Mauerlaty and lezhni from bars or otesannyh on two edgings of logs at a rare arrangement of rafters can be in a kind korotyshej in the length 60-80 see /
In order to avoid a pulling down of a roof a wind stropilnye feet are not more rare than through one krepjat wire skrutkoj (0 4-6 mm) to the crutch (ruff) closed up in a wall or to ferro-concrete elements of garret overlapping. At the big length stropilnoj feet give it additional support in the form of leaning on lezhen podkosov. If length stropilnoj feet more than standard lengths of forest products it project the compound.
Stropilnaja a beam (diagonal or nakosnaja) in a direction of an edge of a roof leans in the fad on konkovyj run or priboiny. Having considerable length, it bears the big loadings and consequently is supported by additional support in flight in a kind podkosov, racks and shprengelej (fig. 35). The sizes of section obreshetki, stropilnyh feet, runs, podkosov define calculation. Mauerlaty from round wood carry out from logs of 0 180-120 mm, bruschatye mauerlaty have section 140x160 or 160x180 mm. /
Recently in mass civil building wide application have found modular naslonnye rafters. All elements of such rafters produce at factories and deliver on buildings in the form of boards ready to installation. Basic elements of modular rafters are stropilnye boards, stropilnye farms, boards obreshetki and podkosnye frames. The stropilnye boards consisting from stropilnyh of feet and bar obreshetki, lean on mauerlat and podkosnye frames which establish on podkladnye elements. Along a building podkosnye frames connect nails. Stropilnye feet stropilnyh boards krepjat wire skrutkoj to the crutches which have been closed up in a stone laying, or to ferro-concrete elements of garret overlapping. Stropilnye farms block average flight between stropilnymi boards. To farms on nails krepjat boards obreshetki. In some cases the design of rafters consists only of the boards stacked on mauerlaty and konkovye runs. /
If in the buildings having considerable width, internal support are absent also the device naslonnyh rafters it is impossible, resort to application stropilnyh the farms leaning only on two points. Stropilnye farms can be wooden, metalloderevjannye, steel and ferro-concrete, triangular, polygonal and segment forms.
Stropilnoj a farm name such bearing design of a roof which consists of system of the cores located in one plane and connected on the ends. Places of connections of cores name knots of farms, and distance between the next knots - the panel. Elements timbered and bruschatyh farms connect in knots cuttings, bolts and skobami, board - bolts, nails and nageljami, steel - welding and is more rare rivets. The cores defining a geometrical outline of a farm, form its top and bottom belts, and connecting belts of a rack and raskosy - a farm lattice.
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