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Wooden roofs (a part 2)

Depending on blocked flight wooden stropilnye farms (trailing rafters) can have various constructive schemes. The bottom belt of trailing rafters (inhaling) works on a stretching, perceiving raspor from stropilnyh feet. For reduction of sagging of an inhaling in farms more than 8 m arrange with flight of a suspension bracket (grandma), and for deflection reduction stropilnyh feet - raskosy, cut into a suspension bracket. podnoski works on a stretching. On the top belt of farms stack runs, and to bottom krepjat pendant garret overlapping on steel suspension brackets. Often in wooden farms the elements working on a stretching, carry out from steel cores. Such farms name metalloderevjannymi. /

Steel and ferro-concrete farms apply mainly in civil buildings of the big flights and industrial function buildings. Steel farms produce from rolling profiles of a steel - corners. Connection of elements steel stropilnyh farms make in knots by means of welding for what between corners of belts and obreshetki put steel fasonki in the thickness of 10-12 mm. /

On fig. 34 various types of wooden rafters and examples of the decision of separate knots are resulted.

Schemes naslonnyh rafters

a Fig. 34. Schemes naslonnyh rafters :

And - odnoskatnyh; - dvuskatnyh roofs; in - a general view naslonnyh rafters;

1 - stropilnaja a foot; 2 - a rack; 3 - podkos; 4 - mauerlat (podstropilnyj a bar); 5 - lezhen; 6 - run; 7 - a crossbar; 8 - rasporka

Rafters connect with each other or cut into inhalings, mauerlaty or in walls at an acute angle. As cut into rafters auxiliary details - grandmas, podkosy and crossbars (fig. 34 see). Separate details of rafters for bolshej in addition fasten durabilities with each other skobami, bolts, collars etc. /

The Way of performance in rafters of cuttings depends, mainly, on character of forces operating on them, namely: whether these connections will work on a stretching, compression or a bend. We will consider work stropilnoj a farm consisting from two stropilnyh of feet and an inhaling (beam) and a crossbar. On rafters the weight of rafters, obreshetki presses, roofs, snow, a strength of wind, etc. These forces aspire to move apart rafters in a direction from the building centre outside. However they are counteracted by an inhaling. If the inhaling does not give in to a stretching, rafters can cave in. To avoid it, put the additional crossbar working in this case on compression, or the grandma and podkosy. For strengthening of rafters to their bottom part (from an inhaling to a crossbar) krepjat the second bruski - help. /

Details naslonnyh rafters

a Fig. 35. Details naslonnyh rafters :

And - plans of rafters; - knots; in - a cutting podkosa in stropilnuju a foot; g - interface podkosov and racks with lezhnem; d - the installation scheme shprengelja under nakosnuju a foot;

1 - stropilnaja a foot; 2 - nakosnaja stropilnaja a foot; 3 - run; 4 - narozhnik; 5 - mauerlat; 6 - kobylka; 7 - shprengel; 8 - internal walls; 9 - a rack; 10 - podkos; 11 - lezhen; 12 - antiseptirovannaja a lining; 13 - skoby; 14 - priboina; 15 - a bolt; 16 - an axis nakosnoj feet (diagonal); 17 - roofing felt; 18 - skrutka

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