For protection zasypki from humidifying by air steams, moving in the winter from outside premises, it is necessary to stack from the interior of a wall under a covering izoljatsionnyj a layer from pergamina, roofing felt, roofing material or another similar izoljatsionnogo a material. Before zasypkoj these materials mix with izvestju-pushenkoj which take not less than 10% from volume of a material for zasypki (for example, 90% of sawdust and 10% to exhaust-pushenki). All carefully mix to a structure total homogeneity. Izvest-pushenka protects zasypku from cultivation in it rodents. Apply these materials in a dry kind.
For more uniform hashing of organic materials with izvestju-pushenkoj these materials layers fill on the dry earth or a wooden board-boek and mix shovels. Prepared zasypku put in emptiness layers on 200-300 mm and carefully condense.
As the Material for zasypki slag, pumice, sawdust, a moss, peat, sunflower luzga, a fire, ochesy, rublenyj a cane, straw, etc. The easier a material, the below its heat conductivity can serve. We will remind weight of some loose materials (in 1 m 3 ): boiler slag - 1000 kg, the granulated domain slag - 700, trepel - 600, pumice - 500, the shaving wood - 300, sawdust wood - 250, peat dry - 150, a moss dry - 135, straw sechka (is sharp) - 120 kg. All organic materials (sawdust, straw sechka, peat, a moss, a shaving, a fire, etc.) antiseptirujut also dry.
The Big lack dry zasypok - they sit with formation of emptiness. Therefore at their use of a wall it is necessary to lift on 200-300 mm above ceiling beams and completely to fill zasypkoj; gradually settling, it fills emptiness. Under windows instead of zasypki it is better to apply plitnye or fibrous materials. If they are not present, it is necessary to arrange sliding window sills and through them to add zasypku.
For elimination of flowability warming zasypki to it add the materials transforming it in a firm filler. For example, if 85% of sawdust to mix from 10% to exhaust-pushenki and 5% of plaster sawdust will turn to the firm filler named thermolit. For this purpose sawdust or other organic materials apply slightly damp, without special drying. At first sawdust mixes with pushenkoj, and then with plaster and there and then quickly stacks on a place, carefully ramming. Plaster from a moisture available in a filler is humidified and seizes a little, connecting separate particles of a filler in friable weight which does not sit.
It is possible to apply and humidified zasypki, observing thus certain parity of used materials which take volume, and it is better weight parts:
- on 1 part of an organic filler of 0,3 parts from a message-pushenki or ground kipelki and 2 parts of water;
- on 1 part of an organic filler of 0,4 parts of plaster and 2 parts of water.
If instead of to exhaust-pushonki or ground to exhaust use the limy dough it take in 2 times more, but a quantity of water reduce.
Prepare humidified zasypki so. On boek layers fill organic fillers and knitting substance, all carefully mix, then moisten with water. Laid with easy consolidation zasypka dries up in designs of 3-5 weeks, depending on temperature conditions. In wooden frame buildings with such zasypkami it is not necessary to apply paroizoljatsionnye materials (roofing felt, roofing material, pergamin, etc.) which tighten drying, and sometimes lead to fungus formation - the dangerous wrecker of wood.
More effective heater from organic materials are plates in the size 50x50 or 70x70 sm and in the thickness from 5 to 10 see For their preparation on 1 weight part of an organic filler take 4 parts of the clay test, 0,3 parts of cement, 2-2,5 parts of water; or 1,5 parts ground kipelki (it is possible pushenki), 0,3 parts of cement, 2-2,5 parts of water; or 1,5-2 parts of plaster, 2-2,5 parts of water; or 1-2 parts trepelovidnoj clay, not less than 0,7 parts ground kipelki (it is possible pushenki) and 2-3 parts of water. If use the limy dough its quantity doubles, and waters decreases. /
Dry materials preliminary mix, moisten with water and again mix to a homogeneous condition, put in forms, ram, remove forms and dry under a canopy or indoors. Drying time depends on temperature conditions and applied knitting substance. Products with clay dry on the average 4-5 weeks, with plaster, izvestju and trepelom - 2-3 weeks.
a Fig. 25. A fragment of a corner of an one-storeyed frame building :
And - a corner fragment; - a horizontal cut; in - a vertical cut;
1 - rafters; 2 - podstropilnaja a beam; 3 - the boards laid on a diagonal under a floor; 4 - bottom obvjazka; 5 - intermediate racks; 6 - a socle; 7 - a waterproofing; 8 - a board or rejka; 9 - floor logs; 10 - a board; 11 - okantovochnaja a board; 12 - a floor; 13 - a rack of a window aperture; 14 - top obvjazka; 15 - a board covering; 16 - crossbars; 17 - a loose heater; 18 - paroizoljatsija; 19 - the stamped clay; 20 - a beam of garret overlapping.
More economic wooden walls are walls frame, karkasno-panel board, panel board, collected of elements of factory manufacturing (fig. 25). The wooden skeleton represents a spatial design from bottom obvjazok, laid on the base, leaning on these obvjazki one- or two-storeyed racks from boards, the bars connected top obvjazkami, beams and podkosami in rigid system. Connections of elements of such skeleton carry out on nails, bolts, and at bruschatom a skeleton apply and skoby. On skeleton racks do a board covering. Space between external and internal coverings fill warming zasypkoj, floor-mats from kamyshita or solomita or various plitnymi with heaters. In frame buildings of factory manufacturing an external board covering often protect a covering asbotsementnymi sheets. /
As Wooden large-panel houses are called buildings with walls, overlappings and other constructive elements of factory manufacturing. Such buildings erect in height in one or two floors. Bearing skeleton of the house is formed by the panels of external and internal walls connected among themselves bruskami bottom and top obvjazki. The bases - stolbchatye or tape, laid out from a brick, monolithic concrete or from other materials. Walls - the external and internal panels leaning on bruski bottom obvjazki, laid on base top. Stenovye panels happen deaf persons and with window or doorways. Socle overlapping - panels with a warming layer. Bruski top obvjazki is not only communications for the mounted panels of external and internal walls, they serve as a support for building elements of a roof or panels of garret overlapping. Rafters consist from wooden stropilnyh feet, racks and podkosov. Roof - wavy asbestotsementnye sheets, a metal tile or other roofing materials laid on obreshetke from bruskov. Otmostka - the asphalt or concrete strip along perimetre of external walls, is intended for tap of a surface water. /
Panels of external walls have planimetric obvjazku from profile bruskov with an external both internal covering and warming from mineralovatnyh plates. The heater from the inside protects from humidifying paroizoljatsija from pergamina.
In panels of internal walls unlike the external the covering from two parties, internal filling - from wood-fiber plates is provided gipsokartonnaja. Panels of socle and garret overlapping on width same as stenovye, and their length depends on the sizes of a blocked premise. On top of panels of socle overlapping the covering from firm wood-fiber plates is provided. At qualitative manufacturing of panels, a split-hair accuracy of installation and careful zadelke joints these houses possess good operational qualities. /
Before installation of designs of the large-panel wooden house check horizontal position and prjamougolnost the erected base. The house socle should be horizontal. Its top surface verify two-metre rejkoj with level. All roughnesses level a cement-sandy solution (structure 1:2). Prjamougolnost the base check by means of a cord tense between opposite corners. Equality of diagonals testifies about prjamougolnosti the laid out base.
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