The Durability of the house depends in many respects on observance of correct technology of erection of the base and assemblage sruba.
We Will consider a base and wall cut rublenogo a log house (fig. 19). In a countryside the base do an identical thickness, as its that part which is in the earth, and that which towers over the earth. In building practice that part which is in the earth, is called as the base, and that that above earth level, - a socle by which do a little is more thin the base.
For example, the base is executed from butobetona, and a socle - from a brick. For underground ventilation in a socle arrange apertures in the size 130x130 mm or more, having them not below 200 mm over earth level, above - it is better. These apertures arrange from two opposite sides of an underground - one-two from each party more often. That rodents have not got to an underground, frogs, close apertures a frequent lattice or a grid. In a warm season ventilating apertures open, and with approach of cold time them close outside a brick and cover with a clay solution. It is possible to close also apertures teploizoljatsionnym a material, to press its brick, a board, plywood and to cover with a clay solution or in addition to close a brick. Underground ventilation protects wooden designs being there from rotting and infection with a mushroom - the destroyer of wood. /
From lateral aspect round the base arrange otmostku in the width not less than 1 m, with a bias towards street. Otmostka it is intended for tap from the house of superficial and rain waters. In these purposes the top vegetative layer of earth remove on depth 10-15 see Dredging put at first clay, then sand with gravel, rubble or brick fight and stamp. Otmostku it is possible to execute from asphalt or concrete with zhelezneniem surfaces for creation of a water-proof crust.
a Fig. 19. A base and wall cut rublenogo a log house:
1 - the base; 2 - a socle; 3 - otmostka; 4 - socle top; 5 - a waterproofing; 6 - a lining; 7 - teploizoljatsionnyj a material; 8 - okladnoj a wreath; 9 - the second wreath; 10 - the subsequent wreaths; 11 - a drain board; 12 - podokonnaja a board; 13 - bruski boxes; 14 - a backlash filled with a tow; 15 - greasing and zasypka; 16 - a roof; 17 - eaves; 18 - razvorotnaja skoba; 19 - a plinth; 20 - a space; 21 - a thermal bar; 22 - a deal floor; 23 - a log; 24 - a lining; 25 - a brick column; 26 - concrete preparation; 27 - zasypka
Socle Top level a cement mortal which stack a layer in 10-20 mm strictly horizontally. For this purpose from two parties of a socle strengthen edging or stroganye boards on level, lifting them over a socle for the necessary thickness of a layer. Prepare a dense cement mortal of structure 1:2 or 1:3, stack it between boards, well condense, level and smooth down a steel shovel or kelmoj. It is reliable enough cement waterproofing. However it becomes much better, if than it to cover with 2-3 millimetric layer of the pure cement test, to level it and to smooth down - zazheleznit the same tools. Such plaster should be dried, and for bolshej reliability to lay over it a waterproofing from two layers of roofing felt or roofing material but so that joined nontsy were imposed against each other not less than on 100 mm. To stack these materials it is possible dry or on mastic: roofing felt - on degtevoj, roofing material - on bitumen. If a ground crude it is desirable to lay the third layer. The waterproofing should hang over a socle a minimum on 20-30 mm. /
To Replace the decayed logs okladnogo a wreath very difficult. Therefore, to protect them from destruction, under it stack a so-called lining, i.e. a board in the thickness of 40-50 mm, width 200-300 mm. It antiseptirujut or cover from three parties, except for top and face, bitumen mastic or pitch-zhivitsej. When such materials are not present, a lining wrap up from three parties roofing felt or roofing material in two layers and stack on a waterproofing. If it leaky adjoins to it it is necessary to cut a strip on width of a board from roofing felt or roofing material, to lay them in two-three layers, joining thus their end faces end-to-end. Instead of strips it is possible to apply teploizoljatsionnyj a material, hemp, a tow, felt, it is desirable antiseptirovannye, and it is even better impregnirovannyj felt. At such order of performance of works blowing off or rotting of the bottom wreaths of the house is excluded.
On a lining lay teploizoljatsionnyj a material on which stack okladnoj a wreath. The bottom parties of a wreath exactly otesyvajut, and sometimes also plane. It provides more dense prileganie and material pressing to a lining. It is known that the second logs okladnogo a wreath are above the first on half of their diameter, forming between the base space which put a stone or a brick. Registration of the base and okladnogo a wreath is carried out by a cement mortal. /
On okladnoj a wreath stack the second wreath, and on it - the subsequent with packing between grooves of logs teploizoljatsionnogo a material such layer that there were no blank places. For tap of an atmospheric precipitation from the bottom part of walls in okladnom, and it is better in the second wreath, choose a groove and insert into it a drain board or a roofing steel of such width that they hung over a socle not less than on 50 mm.
That wreath on which put window apertures, prepare, is better cutting down under an aperture a crest or it is equal stesyvaja but so that they were strictly horizontal. At installation of boxes on a log under an aperture put teploizoljatsionnyj a material with which cover with two layers of roofing felt or roofing material, and only then establish strictly on level podokonnuju a board. From lateral aspect podokonnoj boards there is a groove or a quarter where insert and krepjat also a drain board or a roofing steel. On podokonnuju a board put strictly vertically bruski boxes or jambs on which stack vershnik (the top part of a box). Over vershnikom leave a backlash equal of 1/20 heights of an aperture, for possibility deposits sruba. A backlash fill teploizoljatsionnym with a material and close platbands from two parties. All this design supposes free to a deposit of walls. In the same way arrange also doorways.
At the necessary height between two wreaths cut ceiling beams or beams of garret overlapping. After the roof device on beams do a flooring of plates, gorbylej or boards, on them carry out greasing and zasypku. /
The Roof consists of rafters, obreshetki and roofs. A roof do this or that design, height depending on an applied roofing material. From lateral aspect arrange eaves which can be a different design and registration. Eaves arrange so that between it, cracks that is rather important for protection from condensate formation in a chimney were not walls and a roof. For roof deduction on rafter walls krepjat to the last, and it is better to a penultimate wreath with the help razvorotnyh skob.
Sexual beams indoors if they have not been cut into walls, stack on columns. It is necessary to pay special attention on good preparation of an underground: at first fall asleep a ground, well condense it, put a layer of clay or butobetona. The the underground is is better prepared, the it is less than dampness in the house and the more purely and drier air, and the main thing - in such conditions on wooden designs does not appear a house fungus.
For the floor device at first arrange brick or concrete columns of the necessary height and section, stack on them a waterproofing from two layers of roofing felt or roofing material. On a waterproofing stack linings for unloading which represent pieces of a thick board in the thickness of 40-50 mm. On linings stack beams or logs on which lay a deal floor.
To a lining laid below okladnogo of a wreath, beat a thermal bar closely to logs or on some distance from them, i.e. with a space of 15-20 mm. The space bottom is filled teploizoljatsionnym with a material a layer of 20-40 mm with which carefully condense, i.e. caulk. It do for the prevention of possible blowing off of air. The thermal bar can be any height, but it is better such that the ends of sexual boards could lean against it. Floor boards should not reach a wall for a thickness of a space, and available crack close a plinth. In need of space filling teploizoljatsionnym a material it is enough to take away plinths. After that carry out the first konopatku. Then start the device of oven or water heating.
When srub collect on wooden columns in them arrange direct thorns, and in logs okladnogo a wreath hollow out nests, but lengths of thorns on 10-20 mm necessarily are deeper. It is desirable in any stolbchatye the bases (concrete, brick, stone) to insert steel thorns in the form of steel cores or pipes in diameter not less than 20 mm. The further assemblage sruba is conducted in the usual way. Performance of the stated recommendations at building of the wooden house increases term of its service. All wood which is in an underground, should be absolutely dry and antiseptirovannoj. Crude wood quickly rots.