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Pilenie of wood

By preparation of manual saws for work in the beginning they are cleared of sawdust, by pitches and rusts, washing out in kerosene. If necessary a saw cloth correct a hammer on an equal metal plate. After that tops of teeths of saws level (fugujut) for what on a workbench the board becomes stronger, into its cut insert a file. At fugovanii a saw insert into the same cut teeths downwards and move a saw on a file. Correctly otfugovannye teeths should to adjoin a ruler edge densely. That at pilenii the saw cloth was not clamped in a prosaw, it is necessary to plant teeths of saws. At divorce teeths serially unbend: even - in one party, odd - in another. All tooth, but only its top part at height to 2/3 from the basis on 0,25-0,5 mm aside for wood of firm breeds and 0,5-0,7 mm - for soft breeds is thus unbent. Teeths of manual saws plant with special distributings: Saw cloth densely clamp in a vice and alternately unbend teeths that in one, in other party, without sharp movements, in regular intervals, without applying the big efforts not to break a tooth.

The Following operation - sharpening of teeths drank files with a double and unary notch. Under the form files distinguish trihedral, rhombic and flat. Manual saws usually sharpen trihedral or rhombic files. At sharpening a saw cloth clamp in a vice strengthened on a workbench. A file press to a tooth at its movement from itself, and at return it slightly raise, that it did not concern saws. Strongly to press a file to a tooth does not follow, as thus it will heat up that will lead to reduction of durability of teeths of saws. Teeths with direct sharpening of saws for longitudinal raskroja sharpen on the one hand, and the file should be held to perpendicularly cloth of a saw. Saws for cross-section raskroja wood have slanting sharpening, therefore teeths them sharpen a file which hold at an angle 60-70 °. At these saws teeths sharpen through one. Having ground teeths on the one hand, a saw turn to itself other party and, having strengthened in a vice, sharpen other teeths. Luchkovye saws sharpen trihedral files which select for the sizes of teeths of saws. The ground saws should not have agnails, zasineny and other defects. /

Working methods manual saws. For work a saw cloth in relation to the machine tool (luchku) establish at an angle 30 °, thus the saw cloth should be rectilinear, without warps and well tense. Correctness of installation of a saw check as follows: the left hand hold for srednik, and right for the handle and look one eye at a saw cloth. If the saw cloth is established correctly it will look like the tense thread and if it is incorrect the braided end will be thicker. Rectify situation of a cloth of a saw by handle turn.

At longitudinal pilenii a board or brusok put on a workbench or a table so that the sawn off part came out, i.e. overhung for verstachnuju a board, and strengthen a clamp. Then plan a line raspila a pencil with a ruler, or a surface gauge.

At a cutting of wood a saw direct so that it did not descend from the planned line raspila and was not clamped in a prosaw, went freely and easily, did not warp in a prosaw, and went exactly, without shaking. At a warp the saw cloth will be jammed in a prosaw or it will be heavy to move ahead from a friction, will heat up and will lose the prochnostnye qualities. At pilenii hold a saw for a rack the right hand, and left support a sawn board, thus the foot of the left foot should stand in parallel a workbench, and right - at an angle 70-80 ° to a foot of the left foot. The saw should be in strictly horizontal position. /

At pilenii do movements "тЁрчьр§" press a saw to a bottom raspila at movement downwards and take her aside at movement upwards (idling) a little. It is necessary to saw exactly, without sharp movements and strong pressings and without warps. At longitudinal sawing up short boards with the made marking fix in a vice in vertical position so that risk was visible to the working. A saw put on a line of a marking and by slow movement on itself do the superficial has spent on drink, then it is possible to saw in full scope of a saw.

Exact has spent on drink do sometimes "ё эюу= " or on a thumb joint. A nail of a thumb of the left hand put precisely at risks then a saw slowly pull over itself closely to a nail with easy pressing wood, thus teeths go deep and do has spent on drink, then, having removed the left hand, continue pilenie the cloth middle, moving a saw not on full scope. Only after saw deepening in has spent on drink saw in full scope. At pilenii "ё эюу= " it is necessary to be very cautious. Not to wound a hand, hold a nail of a finger or a joint of a finger above teeths of a cloth of a saw. Approximately as begin pilenie on brusku. For maintenance of high quality of a sawn surface it is necessary to work as a saw with correctly picked up size of teeths, their correct distributing and good sharpening. Wrong raspil wood it turns out at strong pressing by a saw and a deviation from risks. At a cross-section cutting of boards, bruskov a material put on a workbench or a table so that the sawn off piece hanged down from it, and on made in advance risk do has washed down, holding luchkovuju a saw the right hand for a rack above the handle, and left support a material. For exact cross-section raskroja boards, bruska under a certain corner without a marking, apply raspilovochnyj a box in which lateral walls there are the prosaws made under a certain corner. At pilenii a material support the left hand, and right take for a rack a saw and, directing it to the necessary has spent on drink, tortsujut a material. /

Mechanized pilenie. Manual pilenie wood - labour-consuming and unproductive operation. Application of the electrotool for pilenija wood raises labour productivity at 5-10 time and does not demand the big physical efforts. For mechanised pilenija apply manual chain and disk electric saws.

Chain power saws (ЭП-К5М, Ep-Kb, К-5М) are intended for cross-section raskroja round wood, bars, boards. The cutting tool in these saws - infinite pilnaja a chain set in motion from the electric motor through a reducer. The saw chain represents a set of the separate links (teeths) connected by hinges. At saw Ep-Kb working length of a cutting part of a saw of 445 mm, speed of movement of a chain of 5,4 km/s, capacity of 1,7 kw, a voltage of 220 V, frequency of a current of 200 Hz. The sizes 438x305x573 mm, weight of 8,8 kg.

Disk power saws (ИЭ-5102Б, ИЭ-5103, ИЭ-5104, ИЭ-5106, ИЭ-5107) are intended for longitudinal and cross-section raskroja boards and bruskov various breeds of wood. Power saw ИЭ-5107 apply to sawing up of boards, bruskov in the thickness to 65 mm up and down fibres. It it is possible raskraivat wood under the necessary corner (0-45 °). /

It consists of the electric motor, an one-stage reducer, mobile and motionless protective casings, the basis, pilnogo a disk, a knife for rasklinivanija a sawn material, the handle with the switch and the filter for suppression of a radio noise, the handle tokopodvodjashchego a cable with a plug plug. To work as a saw safely as the electric motor has double isolation (a class of protection II). Power saw ИЭ-5107 can be maintained and as the stationary machine tool, having established and having fixed it on a workbench. Technical characteristics of disk power saws are resulted in tab. 1.

In power saws apply round flat saws in the thickness of 1,2-1,8 mm and diameter 160-200 mm. Disk saws saw wood as lengthways, and across fibres, kill thorns, choose quarters (fig. 5).

Before the work beginning make check of serviceability of a saw, correctness of distributing of teeths, their sharpenings, fastening of a disk, etc. After check of work of a saw empty take the left hand the forward handle of a power saw, and right - back and smoothly lower a saw on the processed material strengthened on a workbench, a table. In order to avoid damage verstachnoj boards under a sawn material enclose a defective material. A pilnyj disk establish in relation to panels (plate) so that it acted on depth has spent on drink.

Table 1

Technical characteristics of manual disk power saws

INDICATORS

ИЭ-5104

ИЭ-5106

ИЭ-5107

Diameter pilnogo a disk, mm

200

160

200

the Greatest depth has spent on drink, mm

70

45

65

the Angle of slope pilnogo a disk, hailstones

0 - 45

0 - 45

0 - 45

Frequency of rotation pilnogo a disk, rpm

2400

2900

2900

Speed of giving at sawing up on full depth, m/mines

1,2

-

-

the Electric motor: useful capacity, kw

0,6

0,37

0,75

frequency of a current, Hz

50

50

50

pressure, In

220

220

220

Overall dimensions (length width height), mm

365x280x300

252x352x226

360x360x240

Weight, kg

10,5

5

6,5


Working methods a disk power saw


a Fig. 5. Working methods a disk power saw:

And - pilenie wood along fibres; - pilenie wood across fibres;
In - quarter sample; g - zarezka thorns, crests.

To Move a power saw on a material it is necessary rectilinearly and exactly, without pushes and warps. At fast movement of a saw on a material it can be jammed pilnyj a disk, be overloaded the electric motor that will lead to its exit out of operation. At jamming pilnogo a disk in a material it is necessary to remove a little a power saw back and only after clearing pilnogo a disk when it will type the necessary frequency of rotation, it is possible to continue pilenie. If at jamming pilnyj the disk stops, it is necessary to switch off the electric motor immediately. To move a saw on a material it is necessary so that pilnyj the disk went strictly on a marking. Upon termination of work a power saw disconnect from a network, clear kerosene, grease and put for storage in a special box.

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