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Safety precautions at building (a part 2)

At installation of wooden designs and products it is necessary to observe the following safety requirements:

  • to installation of wooden designs it is possible at to step only after their survey and elimination of the defects which have arisen during transportation;

  • the wooden design established on support, it is possible to release from slings only after fastening by its constant or time communications;

  • at installation of elements of walls and partitions not obhodimo to take measures against overturning by their wind;

  • rafters to the device obreshetki should temporarily raskrepljatsja;

  • to stack beams of overlappings, to file ceilings, to stack boards nakatov follows with podmostej or the floorings laid on beams;

  • for pass working on not finished (without a floor) to overlappings on beams do passes of boards (width not less than 0,7;

  • the door and other apertures which are coming to light or in a premise without overlappings and floorings, should be sewn up with boards on height not less than 1,2 m;

  • it is not authorised to go on boards podshivnogo a ceiling, beaten from below to beams and nakatu, it is laid nomu on cranial bruskam.

In plotnichnyh works along with manual skills the considerable role is played by mechanisation of variety of productions. Correctly to use the manual tool and mechanisms, it is necessary to observe certain measures on traumatism prevention.

At work on the various equipment for safety it is necessary to carry out only those operations for which this equipment is intended. What the master in an operating time particularly should do? For protection of hands and eyes it is necessary to use individual protection frames, i.e. mittens, points and so forth it is necessary to watch closely the signals having a direct bearing on work carried out by it or warning about occurrence of danger. It is impossible to distract extraneous conversations and to operate imprudently, to hurry up. /

Before the beginning of work the carpenter should put on overalls well adjusted on a figure. The overalls should be accurately filled, not have the hanging down ends and not to constrain movements of the worker.

Before the work beginning it is necessary to learn about all malfunctions of the equipment and most to check up:

  • reliability of fastenings of especially important knots and details;

  • presence of protective adaptations and protections on dangerous sites of the equipment;

  • serviceability puskoregulirujushchih equipment devices, greasing presence in rubbing connections of the equipment;

  • serviceability of the tools necessary for performance of work, for adjustment and small repair of the equipment during change;

  • the manual tool should be well ground, handles smoothly ostrogany, and working parts are well fixed on the handle.

At cars, machine tools and electric drive electrotools should be well isolated and have serviceable plug connections, working parts (the disk of a circular saw, knifes of planes and planing cars) are well ground, reliably fixed and protected by casings, curtains or other adaptations. /

After car preparation, machine tools and electrotools need to be tested preliminary idling. Considering that in work of the carpenter the big relative density is occupied with handwork, it is necessary to pay special attention on safety requirements at application of manual tools.

Categorically it is forbidden to work as the faulty tool having cracks in metal parts and in handles, and also otkoly and erose places in handles.

It is impossible to apply again made tool without its preliminary check, and also to use at work as the wet or greased tool.

Manual tools of shock action (dobojniki, etc.) should satisfy hammers to a number of requirements, namely:

  • the working ends should not have damages (hollows, having chopped off), and lateral sides in clip places their hand should not have agnails and sharp edges;

  • the occipital part of the tool should be smooth, without cracks, agnails and having chopped off;

  • tools should be dense nasazheny narukojatki in the length not less 15см.

The Carpenter should work as the hammers having sufficient weight and a convenient shock platform. To work as casual hammers it is not recommended.

Wooden handles of manual tools should be made of firm, viscous breeds of a tree (a cornel, a beech, a maple, a young oak and so forth), without knots, cracks and decay. Handles of axes and hammers should have sections of the oval form with a thickening by the free end, other end should be rasklinen a wooden or metal wedge. For strengthening of hammers it is necessary to take only metal wedges. To work as hammers without a wedge it is forbidden. Hammers should be correct and strong nasazheny on handles. /

At work with the cutting tool it is necessary to fulfil such requirements:

  • in all cases the tool to put so that the edge has been directed downwards;

  • not to saw a manual saw a material laid on a knee, not to direct a saw a hand;

  • at work as a saw to direct a saw cloth after risk by means of an emphasis, and at a cutting a material to stack on linings or on a workbench, hands at sawing up to hold away from a line has spent on drink;

  • working as a chisel, it is necessary to direct it so that not to damage a hand supporting the processed subject.

Cutting tools should be sharpened on privodnyh or manual grinding devices by means of grinding circles, bruskov, oselkov and files. At a point of tools it is necessary to put on safety points that splinters from grinding stones have not got to an eye. Nazhdachnoe sharpened for tool sharpening should have a protective casing and the transparent screen. /

At tool sharpening on nazhdachnom the machine tool it is necessary to observe following rules:

  • before to sharpen the tool, to adjust podruchnik the machine tool so that a backlash between circle and edge podruchnika did not exceed 3 mm;

  • during sharpening to stand a little sideways a circle and to bring the sharpened tool to a rotating circle gradually, to warn possibility of jamming of the tool and circle rupture.

If the tool sharpen on the machine tool working from the electric motor, it is necessary to watch serviceability of grounding of the case of the machine tool. Application at parquet works of the various electrified tool demands exact performance of rules of the reference with it.

At work as an electroplane or any other car it is necessary to watch that knifes have been carefully tightened and fixed by all bolts without application of any washers or linings.

To Attach cars and electrotools to the electric system it is possible only by means of plug devices. Their joining by a cape of the bared ends of wires on contacts of knife switches is forbidden.

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