Floors arrange on overlapping or is direct on a ground (for example, in the ground floors of buildings). Bearing designs of overlappings or a ground carry out a basis role under floors. A wearing floor (clothes) on a ground arrange on a spreading layer (preparation), the material and which thickness depend on type of a floor and character of loading on it. /
According to appointment of a premise floors should meet the requirements of durability (on istiraemost and blow), rigidity (should not cave in), profitability, gigienichnosti (it is easy to give in to cleaning and clearing) and to possess minimum teplousvoeniem. In wet premises floors should be water-proof, and in fire-dangerous - fireproof. /
Floors of civil buildings can be executed from a tree, asphalt, concrete, ksilolita, and also from rolled, sheet, tiled and synthetic materials (fig. 30).
a Fig. 30. Schemes of timber floors :
And - board on logs; - "яыртр¦Ёшщ"; in - panel board board; g - parquet on black board; d - the same, on ferro-concrete overlapping; e - parquet boards; - a floor from parquet boards;
1 - floor boards; 2 - zvuko - and a thermal protection; 3 - logs; 4 - overlapping plates; 5 - galtel; 6 - roofing felt; 7 - dry sand; 8 - boards; 9 - a parquet (on rejku); 10 - rejka; 11 - a black deal floor; 12 - parquet boards; 13 - obverse laths to aesthetic properties today they become more and more fashionable.
Timber floors distinguish high technical and operational advantages and they have wide application despite deficiency of wood. Timber floors lay after end of all "ьюъЁ№§" processes in a building. Apply three basic types of floors: board, parquet and from wood plates.
The Most hygienic both on absence harmful vydeleny (issue), and on thermal comfort (factor teplopogloshchenija) timber floors at correct operation are durable.
The First that it is necessary to consider, starting to nastilke floors: humidity of air indoors by manufacture of works should not exceed 60%, and its temperature should not be more low +8°С.
The same mode is desirable and at operation of floors (that, however, is confirmed by SniPom). At the raised humidity of a board bulk up and vspuchivajutsja, at lowered (30-40%) - floors dry out, are jarred on and on them there are cracks.
In a material for floors should not be zhuchkov-drevotochtsev or traces of a mould of a house fungus. Under a timber floor plane it is necessary to provide ventilated space, and in it is desirable for floor to place special ventilating lattices (forgotten partially in the Soviet period) that dispute does not allow to develop plesnevym to fungi from ubiquitous.
- Under the logs leaning against brick columns, for waterproofing maintenance it is necessary to enclose scraps of roofing material which also protects wood from a mould.
- Deal floors lay directly on beams, if their step rather small. At seldom located beams on them in addition stack logs with the necessary step, and on them already arrange a deal floor. Logs have on distance between axes of 800-850 mm for boards in the thickness of 35-40 mm, at thicker boards the step can be increased a log to 1 m, at more thin - to reduce to 500-600 mm. Humidity of boards should not be above 12%.
- At the device of floors on ferro-concrete overlappings logs stack with step of 400-500 mm through antiseptirovannye tapes - linings from soft DVP for isolation from shock noise. If support a log are brick columns, their top part should be levelled on level or a level. Over them under logs put two layers of roofing material and one layer antiseptirovannoj DVP.
The Timber floor should have a zero bias, therefore beams and logs need to be checked constantly by means of level or a level up and down premises. The step of columns depends on a thickness a log: at a thickness of 400 mm - to 900, at 50 - to 1100, at 60 1200-1300 mm. The step of columns to a cross-section direction depends on a thickness of a sexual board.
On the continuous basis stack logs in the thickness of 25 mm and width 80-100 mm on antiseptirovannym to tapes DVP. On concrete interfloor overlappings logs stack on sound-proof podsypke from slag or sand (and too through tapes DVP) thickness to 60 mm. Level logs in a uniform horizontal plane by means of sand which pour in places "яЁютшёр" defined by level (level). To apply wooden wedges it is impossible, since they can decay. The ends are recommended to be fastened a log, that they have not dispersed at nastilke floors.
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