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Connections of rafters

Ways of their connection depend On action of various forces on rafters (fig. 36-38) also.

Interfaces (a cutting) rafters

a Fig. 36 (a-d). Interfaces (cutting) of rafters :

And - a cutting of rafters an unary tooth: 1 - a line parallel to a side of an inhaling; 2 - inhaling height; 3 - a thorn; - a cutting of rafters a double tooth (4); in - connection of rafters in the inhaling end; g - additional connection of interfaces by bolts (5); connection by collars (6); d - connection podkosa (8) with the grandma (7)

Interfaces (a cutting) rafters

a Fig. 36 (e-l). Interfaces (cutting) of rafters :

e - connection skovorodnem vpoldereva: 9 - stropilnaja a foot; 10 - skoba; 11 - a crossbar; - connection podkosov, grandmas and inhalings: 12 - a bolt; 13 - a collar; 14 - skoba; 15 - an inhaling; z - the device svesa by means of a beam (16); and - fastening stropilnoj feet to logs sruba and mauerlatu: 17 - a nest; 18 - a thorn; to - an adjunction of the ends of rafters to mauerlatu: 19 - mauerlat; 20 - a nest; l - alignment of a deflection of a roof with the help "ъюс№ыъш" and obreshetki: 21 - kobylka; 22 - rafters; 23 - a collar; 24 - the probe

Cuttings in elements of rafters

a Fig. 37. Cuttings in elements of rafters :

And - a cutting front with one tooth; - a cutting front with a double tooth

Cuttings in interface of bars

a Fig. 38. Cuttings in interface of bars:

And - a through thorn; - not through thorn in the descendant; in - vpoldereva

Stropilnaja a foot (cut into a beam (an inhaling), with force presses on the end of inhaling AB. It can cause otkol an extreme top piece of an inhaling. That the end stropilnoj feet did not slide on an inhaling and did not chop off it, a foot cut a tooth, a thorn or simultaneously both that and another. /

The stretch Ends on chop off, if the cutting is executed on distance not less than 250-300 mm. Do it so. On distance of 1/4 heights of an inhaling spend the Dotted line a line parallel to a side of an inhaling. Formed corner ABV halve and Would spend a division line through a vertex of angle before crossing with an inhaling dashed line. A point of intersection designate its G.Soedinjajut's letter with point D (the bottom party of a rafter) and receive a tooth outline. In an inhaling hollow out a nest, and in stropilnoj to a foot cut down a thorn. /

The support Area stropilnoj feet increases, if it cut into an inhaling a double tooth. Usually the height of the first tooth makes 1/5 thickness of the inhaling, the second - 1/3 its thickness, but they can be and identical on size. For the first tooth on an inhaling do an emphasis and a thorn, and on a rafter - an eye; for the second tooth only an emphasis. Cutting rafters into the inhaling end, a tooth remove as it is possible further. The tooth height thus should equal 1/3 heights of an inhaling. For durability stropilnye feet in addition bolt or collars. /

As bolts weaken section stropilnyh feet and inhalings preference usually give to collars a little. Connecting podkosy to the grandma, in it hollow a nest, and in podkose cut down a thorn. In stropilnye feet cut a crossbar skovorodnem in a half-tree and krepjat a bolt or nagelem. For bolshej this knot can be fastened durabilities in addition skoboj. Grandmas and podkosy trailing rafters connect a cutting, and for bolshej durabilities also skobami, collars. A compound inhaling srashchivajut a tooth, metal overlays and bolts. Fasten an inhaling to the grandma a collar.

That roofs of buildings had sves, necessary for water drainage from walls, inhalings or stropilnye let out feet for a wall line. At wooden buildings sves should make not less than 550 mm. Stropilnye feet can lean not only against inhalings and ceiling beams, but also on logs sruba. In this case in bruske (log) do a nest, and on the end of a foot a thorn. /

In buildings stone, brick, concrete and similar to them on all perimetre of external walls stack beams or bars - mauerlaty, on which by means of thorns and nests krepjat rafters. For economy of wood instead of continuous mauerlatov it is possible to use and separate bruski.

That a roof has not lifted a wind, rafters necessarily fasten to a wall. If walls are executed from a stone, a brick etc., rafters put on a collar from a wire in the thickness of 4-6 mm or twist ropes from a thin wire and fix the ends for the probe or a ruff hammered into a wall. In wooden rublenyh rafter walls fasten skobami to the second wreath sruba.