To destination buildings are subdivided on:
- inhabited (condominiums and cottages for constant residing of people);
- garden and country houses (for residing of people, as a rule, in summertime of year);
- hostels (for residing of people in service life or study);
- public (for social service of the population, placing of administrative agencies and public organisations);
- medical and improving (polyclinics, hospitals, kindergartens, a day nursery, etc.);
- educational (schools, technical schools, institutes, etc.);
- industrial buildings (for placing industrial and agricultural productions, maintenance of necessary conditions for work of people and process equipment operation).
- buildings of factories and factories, the enterprises of transport, power concern the industrial, etc.;
- to agricultural - buildings for the maintenance of cattle, a bird, a vegetable - and granaries.
Depending on a material from which walls are put up, distinguish buildings stone, ferro-concrete, wooden, and wooden buildings on a design can be panel, volume-block, panel board, frame, bruschatymi and timbered, i.e. rublennymi from logs.
By the form both to the sizes of a material and a way of manufacture of works of a building happen from small piece elements (brick) and from krupnorazmernyh elements - krupnoblochnye, large-panel. /
Depending on number of floors distinguish buildings a little - and many-storeyed. Houses in height concern low buildings to three floors, to many-storeyed - height from four floors and more. As a floor is called the building part on the height, limited to a floor and overlapping or a floor and a covering. A floor with a mark of a floor of premises not more low planirovochnoj marks (sidewalk, otmostki) name elevated. A floor with a floor mark more low planirovochnoj marks (sidewalk, otmostki), but no more than on half of height of the premises located in it, name socle. In that case when the floor is more low otmostki more than on half of height of the premises located in it, a floor name basement. The mansard floor is intended for placing of premises in a free part of an attic with warming of protecting designs (walls, overlappings, a roof). /
Buildings should correspond to the appointment, create good conditions for residing and work in them, to be strong, durable, safe in the fire relation and to meet sanitary-engineering requirements. Designs of walls, overlappings should correspond teplotehnicheskim, to sound-proof and other requirements to them. Solidity of buildings is characterised by durability and fire resistance classes. The durability of buildings is defined by service life of the basic constructive elements. /
On durability of a building divide into four classes:
- to the first class carry buildings with service life more than 100 years;
- to the second - with service life more than 50 years;
- to the third - more than 20 years;
- to the fourth - till 20 years.
The Class of durability of a building is provided with application of the materials having necessary morozo - vlago - and biofirmness, firmness against corrosion and a heat. /
Fire resistance is characterised by ability of building elements and designs to keep bearing ability, and also to resist to fire distribution. On fire resistance degree building materials and designs share on three groups:
- fireproof when under the influence of fire or a design heat do not ignite, do not decay and do not char (a brick, concrete, ferro-concrete);
- trudnosgoraemye when under the influence of fire or a heat ignite or decay, or char and continue to burn or decay, or char in the presence of an ignition source, and after its removal burning or decay stops (fibrolit, the wood processed antipirenami);
- combustible when designs under the influence of fire or a heat ignite or decay, or char and continue to burn, decay or char after removal of a source of ignition.