Fastening of logs . That logs at processing did not shake, they should be fixed strongly. Usually for this purpose use the socalled return skoby. It is possible to cut off or down also a small platform on the end of a log and to fix it skoboj, or on a lining to cut down rectangular cutting down, to put in it the end of a log and to fix a wedge.
log Recabin . After log fastening on it plan a line pereruba and strike to it blows by an axe at first at right angle (vertically), then at an angle 45 ° (fig. 8). Having chopped a log half, it should be turned and chopped up to the end. /

a Fig. 8. Recabin of a log and a cutting vpoldereva:
1  log recabin; 2  a cutting vpoldereva:
And  a place for a cutting;  notches; in  wood cutting down; g  a cutting 
The Cutting in a halftree. At interface of logs or bruskov the cutting in a halftree is at an angle necessary. Having fixed a log, labels designate places for a cutting to which strike vertical blows with the subsequent skalyvaniem wood.
Oteska of logs . Prior to the beginning oteski logs put on one or two linings and fix. Logs otesyvajut on one, two (fig. 9), three or four edgings on punched with the help namelennogo a cord to threadslines. For thread drawing namelennyj a cord fix in labels on the ends of a log and hardly pull. Then a cord raise a little and lower. Hitting about a log, it leaves a white trace. On this trace and otesyvajut a log, and go from top to komlju, differently wood will be lifted up. For simplification of works through each 400500 mm on a log do nadruby on depth stesyvanija. To avoid bruises and traumas, it is necessary to work widely having placed feet. Having driven an axe in a log, press its handle and unbend aside shchepu. Roughly otesannuju the party smooth out easy blows of an axe. Otesav a log from one edging, start to work with the second edging. When remove a thick shaving, rough otesku it is necessary to do 23 times. At otesyvanii logs on four edgings at first process two opposite edgings, then two remained. /

a Fig. 9. Sequence oteski logs on two edgings:
And  log fastening;  a punched hole of the central axis; in  a punched hole of lateral axes; g  a punched hole of threads; d  the device of notches; e  the beginning oteski;  zachistka; z  the end oteski;
1  the punched line; 2  skoba; 3  notches 
a bar Marking . For a marking of a bar of square section a log fix on linings. Compasses find the centres of end faces and in topmost radius lead round circles at both end faces. Through the centres of circles the weighty beat off vertical diameters, and on a square spend the horizontal. Points of intersection of diameters connect to a circle straight lines, they and will be the bar parties. On points of intersection fix namelennyj a cord, pull it, beat off threads and otesyvajut as it has been told above. /
The Bar of rectangular section mark so. A log put on linings and fix. Compasses find the centres of end faces and in radius of a topmost end face lead round circles at first on small, then on komlevom an end face. Through the centres spend vertical linesdiameters and divide them within a circle into three equal parts. From division points it is strict at right angle by the diameter a square, lower perpendiculars in opposite sides before crossing with a circle. Having connected points of intersection of perpendiculars to a circle and the ends of diameter, receive the bar party. In points of intersection do labels, pull on them namelennyj a cord, beat off lines and otesyvajut. /
The Section of a rectangular bar is considered naivygodnym if a parity of its parties equally 5:7, i.e. the width of a bar makes 5 sm, height  7 sm or accordingly 10 and 14,15 and 21, 20 and 28, 25 and 35, 30 and 42 sm etc.
quarter Sample in logs . Quarters choose in logs and bruskah at the device shpuntovyh numbers, in window and door boxes, etc.
In logs a quarter choose in the following sequence. A log put on linings, fix, radius of a small end face find the centres, spend from them circles at both end faces. Through the centres with the help veska spend vertical diameters, and by means of a square  horizontal. Both those and other diameters divide into three equal parts and through division points spend the lines parallel to diameters. On labels pull namelennyj a cord and beat off lines. Between them an axe do notches, prosekaja them on the punched lines, choose wood, receiving a quarter. If necessary a quarter smooth out a chisel or plane. On bruskah to mark a quarter is much easier.
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