Buildings consist of following basic parts: the bases, walls, overlappings, partitions, ladders, a roof, windows, doors, etc.
the Bases - the bottom part of a building perceiving loading from a building and transferring it on a ground (basis). The bases should be durable, strong, cold-resistant, steady on overturning and against action aggressive and ground waters. The top surface of the base against which the building leans, name a sawn-off shotgun. A plane which the base leans against a ground, name a sole. The bases happen wooden, butovye, butobetonnye, concrete, ferro-concrete. On designs distinguish the bases tape, stolbchatye and pile. For low houses, including one-storeyed, the bases do from butovogo a stone.
Walls are the parts of buildings protecting premises from an environment. In some cases walls perceive loading from overlappings and vysheraspolozhennyh parts of a building and transfer to its base. The walls perceiving loading of own weight and weight of other parts of a building, name bearing at and walls, bearing loading only own weight and wind action, name self-bearing . Walls which only protect premises of buildings from external space and transfer own weight within each floor to other bearing designs of a building, name not bearing. If stenovye panels are attached to a skeleton or cross-section walls of a building so each top panel does not lean on underlaying, walls are called as hinged . /
Overlappings carry out bearing and protecting functions. The overlappings separating a ground floor from a cellar, name socle, and dividing adjacent floors on height - interfloor. The overlapping located over the top floor of a building, name garret. Overlappings should be strong, rigid, fire-resistant enough, easily gather, with necessary warmly - and sound insulation. On an overlapping design happen panel, balochnye.
Partitions are a protecting design and are intended for division of internal space of buildings into separate premises. To destination partitions distinguish interroom, interroom, for sanitary-engineering knots, etc. Partitions do of a brick, easy concrete, plaster plates, wood. They should possess necessary sound-proof properties. /
Floors in buildings do cement, ceramic of tiles, linoleum, board and parquet. Ceramic floors from tiles and cement arrange on ladder platforms, platforms at inputs in buildings, in sanitary-engineering knots, vestibjuljah, etc. Parquet floors do in inhabited and public buildings. Deal floors arrange almost everywhere.
Ladders serve for the message between floors. Them do wooden, ferro-concrete and is more rare the metal. Ladders happen one - two- and three-mid-flight. In the end of marches arrange ladder platforms.
the Roof - the bearing and protecting part of a building protecting it from an atmospheric precipitation and the employee for their tap for its limits. The protecting part consists of a roof (the top water-proof part of a roof) and the basis under a roof. The bearing part of a roof includes rafters, wooden farms, arches. On a roof design happen one- and dvuskatnye, garret, bescherdachnye - combined. The garret roof consists from stropilnoj systems, obreshetki or the continuous or rarefied flooring, a roof. The combined roofs name such designs at which the top part serves as a roof, and bottom - a ceiling.
For garret ventilation arrange skylights. Roofs happen flat and skatnye: roofs concern the flat without a bias or with a bias to 2,5%, to skatnym - with a bias more than 2,5%. Roofs distinguish warmed or cold. The roof consists of following elements: bearing designs, a thermal protection, paroizoljatsii, couplers and a roof.
Bearing elements of a roof - rafters, farms, runs, etc. the Thermal protection is intended the panel for protection of buildings against a cold and an overheat by the sun. Paroizoljatsija protects a heater from the humidifying, water steams getting from a premise. /
the Roof - the top waterproofing course of a roof. The roof happens rolled or from piece materials (asbestotsementnyh sheets, tiles, a tile), metal, etc.
Windows are intended for natural illumination and premise airing. They happen one - two- and three-folding. Window blocks on a design happen coupled both separate and separately-coupled.
Doors serve for communication of premises among themselves, an exit from premises on a staircase and on street. Doors happen one- and dvupolnye. On a design distinguish doors panel board and frame (filenchatye).
a Fig. 1. Architecturally-constructive elements of buildings:
1 - socle overlapping; 2 - interfloor overlapping; 3 - garret overlapping; 4 - the main eaves; 5 - a roof; 6 - a pediment; 7 - an angular pier; 8 - eaves (intermediate); 9 - an ordinary pier; 10 - a crosspiece; 11 - a window aperture; 12 - podokonnyj a belt; 13 - pediment eaves; 14 - sandrik; 15 - a doorway; 16 - a cordon (the top border of a socle); 17 - a socle; 18 - otmostka; 19 - raskrepovka; 20 - a parapet; 21 - a wall sawn-off shotgun; 22 - a semicolumn; 23 - a niche; 24 - a pilaster; 25 - a cellar.
Architecturally-constructive elements of buildings are resulted on fig. 1. As a socle 17 is called the bottom part of an external part of the wall, located over the base. The cordon 16 is the top border of a socle. Wall ledges form eaves 4, 8, 13. /
If the eaves are located on wall top, it name the main thing 4. The Supporting surface of a wall forms eaves part sves. The eaves located over window or doorways, name sandrikami 14. Crosspieces 10 - the elements blocking an aperture from above and supporting a part located over it of a wall. The part of a wall which is between apertures, name a pier 7, 9. A niche 23 - deepening in a wall in which place cases, devices of heating, etc. Ledges in a wall, obrazuemye owing to reduction of a thickness of a wall, name a sawn-off shotgun 21. The covering on the building perimetre, intended for tap from a water building, is called otmostkoj 18. Ledges in a wall of rectangular section name pilasters 24, and semicircular section - semicolumns 22.