- You, Kashtanka, an insect the being and is more than anything.
Suprotiv the person you all the same that the carpenter suprotiv the joiner...
About dispute between plotnitskim and joiner's art, perhaps, Chekhovian character has a little exaggerated: both that and another deal with a tree, it is necessary for both to love and perfectly to know this material faultlessly qualitatively to make of it the conceived thing. However, their problems differ. The joiner makes use subjects smaller and graceful, and the carpenter erects wooden temples, residential buildings and economic constructions. And who from them can seldom consider itself as the universal master working on a tree, very much the few are able to get on with small and grandiose forms equally beautifully.
Russia had since ancient times a reputation for the wooden. This circumstance was predetermined by many factors. Prevalence of a tree was a principal cause. Rusichi lodged, basically, in woody places, and even trees by all means grew in lower reaches of the rivers. Availability of a tree, ubiquity of its distribution our people to ability to address with it also are obliged.
Also there is nothing surprising that in rublennyh wooden houses has been made of a tree almost all subjects of use. Since the birth and to death wooden things accompanied the person: the baby put in the wooden cradle, the matured child slept together with parents on a wooden bench, toys, instruments of labour, distaffs, baskets, tueski, chubuki and tubes, stools, an image, the fishing boats - all became exclusively from a tree. Even bast shoes spun from a lime bast. And after death stacked in wooden domovinu, put on a tomb a carved monument. The tree heated, gave light and heat, fed and defended from wild beasts and enemies.
Therefore also the relation at the people to the most this material has developed the especial: is quivering-valid, religious-mystical, on the verge of worship. It loved and respected, knew advantages and appreciated, being able to use correctly.
The Operational experience with a tree in Russia was got through many centuries. Almost all man's population of the country skilfully to make any wooden trifle. But ability to construct or "ёЁѕсш=і" was considered as the dear most, perhaps; dwelling, the house.
Considering that from plotnichnyh tools in those days there was only sharply perfected and balanced axe, it is possible to name with confidence plotnichnoe business by art, and masters of that epoch - great architects.
Buildings erected, considering the sizes of a human body. Russian habitation was adjusted towards the size mahovoj sazhens - 176,4 sm and broad shoulders - 249,5 see Constructions rusichej differed durability and teplosberegaemostju - it was promoted by a severe climate, long cold winters therefore it was required optimum densely, without backlashes, to combine from preliminary and carefully squared logs (in the length usually 8-10 metres, seldom it happened to pick up to 18 metres) simple rectangular cages. Primitiveness of initial construction spoke, first of all, that circumstance that was required srastit, to adjust closely long trunks in construction corners, achieving bolshej a thermal protection. Cages turned out limited enough on the area, therefore carpenters used a little srubov, uniting them in one structure. However, using elementary rectangular a box as modules, srashchivaja in various variations, masters achieved an amazing variety of architectural styles of wooden architecture.
Houses were erected two-storeyed - for bolshego heat and comfort. Inhabited, top floors were put on "яюфъых=ш" - the same rectangles in height to 16 wreaths. The ground floor was used as economic constructions, and the warm premise located over the earth, "уюЁэхх" above was supposed; or a so-called room.
Ordinary buildings were erected without the base, being established directly on soil, "яю°тхээ№х" because of what and the material was lined corresponding, more "ю=тх=ё=тхээ№щ" many long years not subject to rotting. Downwards put more moisture-proof, very resinous tree: as a rule, such properties possess a larch and "ъюэфютр " cut down at the age of 300-350 years, a pine. At times instead of lesin enclosed under wreaths boulders.
Roofs too did of wood, - covered tesom, in two layers, for the best thermal protection laid between layers berestu. Then put floors: on the ground floor assigned tesiny directly to logs, on the second floor - on beams.
The Material was so accessible and cheap in those days that almost all buildings were constructed from it. Temples and the log huts which do not have a uniform nail in all structure were forever erected. Masters got an enormous operational experience with a tree, and almost any - with a natural stone, and then and a stone artificial - a brick made not everywhere and zadorogo. For this reason of a city in Russia were from a tree and often burnt. Improbable efforts of the power tried to spread stone town-planning, but to the eighteenth century the country continued to stay in a fire-dangerous condition. And only in XVIII-XIX centuries brick-works have started to let out more and more cheap brick becoming accessible to merchants and the middle class of the population. However peasants still lived in srubovyh, the most accessible to them, log huts.
Till now it is possible to meet the examples of the Russian wooden architecture which has remained since those old times amazing imagination. These are known temple ensembles in Kizhi, on Onega, in ancient Russian cities. Sometimes tremendous beauty small towers about which neighbours know only, come across in villages. And no wonder - the part of soul of the builder, enclosed in the house, becomes its guardian angel - so local residents consider.
Today the artificial stone - a brick, concrete - has got unprecedented popularity. Large forests were exhausted. The tree has turned to rather expensive material. Masters, representatives plotnitskogo arts disappear also, their work is appreciated all above. Today harmoniously combined two-storeyed wooden house became inadmissible luxury. And consequently some fans of exotic try to seize independently the lost secrets plotnichnogo arts. For them our site is created.
... The Shaving is strewed from under fuganka, bright yellow and is fragrant-odorous. The smell floats over a workbench, spreading around, slightly turns a head and stupefies, is sweetish-spicy and exciting there is some. Preparation in hands gives saved up live heat, as if podpityvaet the power. It indeed the live: you will enclose in work a shred of own soul - you will receive a beautiful thing which will serve many long years. The wooden bar - as the future wooden little man, waits, when it will be recovered by the clever and kind master. It is necessary to understand only its mood, to feel it and to grow fond really. And then this mute silent stump will respond and will allow the person to feel the true master.